What is a Nursing Process ? Definition, History – Development ,Advantages and steps of nursing process,Purpose, .All these topics in covered in this artical.
What is a Nursing Process Definition ?
Nursing Process is a process is a series of steps that follow a logical sequence. The term nursing process is widely accepted to designate a series of steps that the nurse takes in planning and giving nursing care. It provides a logical framework on which the nursing care is based.
Nursing Process is defined as a systematic problem-solving approach for giving comprehensive nursing care. It can also be defined as an orderly, systematic way of identifying the client’s problems, making plans to solve them, initiating the plans or assigning others to implement it and evaluating the extent to which the plan was effective in resolving the problems identified.
History – Development of Nursing Process:
Lydia Hall (1955) introduced the term nursing process. Lydia identified three aspects of nursing care: CARE, CURE AND CORE and the three steps of process: OBSERVATION, MINISTRATION OF CARE and VALIDATION.
In 1959, Dorothy Johnson described nursing as fostering the behavioral functioning of the client. She furthered explained that there are three steps of process: ASSESSMENT, DECISION and NURSING ACTION.
In 1961, Ida Lois Orlando explained a three step process: CLIENT’S BEHAVIOUR, NURSE’S REACTION AND NURSE’S ACTIONS.
In 1963, Lois Knowles given a five step nursing process using the ‘five Ds’: DISCOVER, DELVE, DECIDE, DO and DISCRIMINATE. The discover and delve steps are relates to assessment phase, decide is the planning stage, do is the implementation stage; discriminate is the evaluation phase of client responses to nursing interventions.
Characteristics of Nursing Process
- It is a framework that enables a nurse to give nursing care to individuals, families and communities.
- It is systematic and orderly. Each nursing activity is part of an ordered sequence of activities. The nursing process directs each step of nursing care in a sequentially ordered manner.
- It is dynamic. Each step in this process flows on to the next step. In some nursing situations, all the stages occur almost simultaneously.
- It is interpersonal. Human being is always the heart of nursing. In this nurses are client-centered and not task oriented.
- The nursing process encourages nurses to work together to help clients to use their strengths to meet all human needs. This also helps nurses to explore their own strengths and limitations and to grow personally and professionally.
- It is outcome-oriented. The client benefit from continuity of care and each nurse’s care moves the clients closer to outcome achievement.
- This process is universally applicable in all nursing situations.
- This can be used throughout the life span.
Phases of Nursing Process
The process is a systematic method that helps the client and the nurse to carry out the following:
- Assessment in which the need for nursing care is determined.
- Nursing diagnosis about actual and potential problems.
- Outcome identification and plan of action based on that.
- Implementation of planned care.
- Evaluation to determine the achievement of planned goal
Purpose of nursing Process
- To identify a client’s health status; his Actual/Present and potential/possible health problems or needs.
- To establish a plan of care to meet identified needs.
- To provide nursing interventions to meet those needs.
- To provide an individualized, holistic, effective and efficient nursing care
Advantages of nursing process
This process helps the nurse and the nursing care in many ways
- create a health data record of a patient
- identify health problems of a patient
- To establish priorities of nursing actions for providing proper services to the patients.
- To make planned organized and individualised nursing care.
- Helps to encourage for innovative nursing care.
- Helps to provide for alternative nursing actions.
- increase the effectiveness of nursing care.