Typhoid fever Care Plan

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Typhoid fever Care PlanDefinition

Typhoid fever is a systemic infectious disease that is characterized when fever continuous a high fever, involvement of lymphoid tissues and malaise.

Typhoid fever Care PlanInfectious agent

Salmonella typhi

Salmonella enteritidis is rare cause

Epidemiology

Occurrence- It occurs all worldwide but particularly in poor socioeconomic areas. Typhoid fever disease is most common in school aged children (5-19 years of age) and preschool children’s.

Reservoir- Humans

Mode of transmission- typhoid fever is transmitted through water and food contaminated by Feces and urine of patients and their carriers. Flies may infect the foods in which organisms then multiply to achieve an Infective dose.

Incubation period –first to third weeks

Period of communicability- During the whole time that the bacilli appear in excreta, usually it presented from the first week throughout convalescence. untreated patients will discharge of the bacilli for 3 months after onset of symptoms, and two to five percent’s become a chronic carriers of this disease.

Clinical manifestation

First week- Mild illness is characterized by fever rising as ladder type, anorexia, lethargy, general aches and malaise. Dull and continuous frontal headache is prominent. 10% of patients. Also observed Nose bleeding, constipation and vague abdominal pain.

Second week- temperature (fever) Sustained and Severe illness Comes with weakness, mental dullness or delirium, abdominal Distension and discomfort. Diarrhea is more common in the first week and feces may contain blood.

Third week- in the third weekPatient feels as febrile and increasingly exhausted. If no complications occur in patient then patient has begins to improve and temperature decreases gradually.

Diagnosis

  • Based on clinical grounds in this is a confused with wide variety of diseases.
  • Blood, feces or urine culture.
  • Widal reaction against somatic and the flagellar antigens.

Nursing care

1. Maintain and control body temperature to normal.

2. Apply all comfort measures.

3.  Continue Follow the side effects of drugs.

4. Monitor vital signs.

5. Follow strictly enteric precautions like as wash hand wear the safety gloves and teach and suggest all persons about personal hygiene techniques.

6. Observe the patient closely for following signs and symptoms

  • bowel perforation
  • erosion of intestinal ulcers
  • sudden pain in the patient lower right side of the abdomen
  • abdominal rigidity
  • sudden fall of temperature and blood pressure

7. Accurately record the data of intake and output.

8. Provide proper skin and mouth care of patient.

Prevention and control of Typhoid Fever

1. Treatment of patients and all diseases carriers

2. Education on handwashing, personal hygine ,particularly food handlers, patients and childcare givers

3. Sanitary disposal of all feces and control of flies.

4. Provision of safe and adequate water

5. Safe and hygine handling of food.

6. Exclusion of typhoid carriers and patients from handling of food and patients

7. Immunization give to the  people at special risk (e.g. Travelers to endemic or infected areas)

8. Regular check-up of food handlers in all food and drinking establishments

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