Define medicine,different routes of medicine administration,11 Types and Purpose of Injections,DRUGS AND MEDICATIONS, in Nursing Foundation
What is DRUGS AND MEDICATIONS ?
A drug is a substance that alters physiologic function, with potential for affecting health. Medicine may be defined as a substance used to promote health, prevent illness, diagnose and cute diseases. A medication is a substance used in the diagnosis, treatment, relief or prevention of health alternations. A drug is a chemical substance that help to modifies body function when taken into the living organism, which may or may not have a therapeutic effect. A medication is a drug administered for its therapeutic effects. so, all medications are drugs, but not all types of drugs are medications.
Route of Medicine Administration
The parenteral route refers to medications that are given to client by injection or infusion. It means giving therapeutic agents outside alimentary tract. It is forcing of fluid into cavity, a blood vessel or a body tissue through a hollow tube or a needle.
Injection Advanced techniques consist of injecting medications into artery, peritoneum, heart tissue, spinal canal and bones. Medications given by parenteral route are absorbed more fast and completely than medications given by other routes.
Types and Purpose of Injections
Now we discussed about Types and Purpose of Injections .firstly 11 Types of Injections :
Types of Injections
Hypodermal or subcutaneous injection
Hypodermal or subcutaneous injection: medicines when “introduced into the subcutaneous tissue or areolar tissue (just below the skin), it is called hypodermic or subcutaneous injection.
Hypospray: the hypospray permits drugs to be sprayed through the skin without a needle. Pressure of about 125 pounds is created in a device, which forces the drug into the tissues without pain and without a visible mark.
Infusions: When a large quantity of medicines are to be introduced into the body, it is called infusion. Usually these are given intravenously or subcutarieously.
Intradermal: Medicines when introduced into the dermis (under the epidermis), it is called intradermal injection.
Intramuscular Injection: medicines when injected into the muscle, it is called intramuscular injection.
Intraosseous Injection: when drugs or fluids are introduced into the peritoneal cavity, it is called intraperitoneal injection.
Intraperitoneal Injection: medicines when introduced into the bone marrow, then it is called intraperitoneal injection.
Intrapinal or intrathecal Injections
Intrapinal or intrathecal Injections: medicines when introduced into spinal cavity, it is called intraspinal or intrathecal injections.
Intravenous and intra-arterial Injection
Intravenous and intra-arterial Injection: medicines and fluids when introduced into a vein, it is called intravenous injection and when introduced into the arteries is called intra-arterial injection.
Venesection or Cut down
Venesection or Cut down: opening a vein and introducing a tube or wide-bore needle and introducing medicines and fluids or taking out blood is called venepuncture or venesection. This is done in emergencies.
Transfusions: it is the introduction of whole blood or plasma into vein or artery to supply actual volume of blood or to introduce constituents as clotting factors or antibodies which are different in the client.
Purpose of Injections
there are many Purpose of Injections some Purpose of Injections list below:
- To get a rapid and systematic effect of the drug. Drugs given by mouth take time for their absorption
- To provide the needed effect even when the client is unconscious, unable to swallow due to neurological or surgical alternations affecting throat and mouth or when the patient is not so cooperative.
- Assures that the total dosage will be administered and the same will be absorbed for systemic actions of the drug.When drug taken by mouth the absorption may not be complete due to many reasons.
- Provides only means of administration for medications that cannot be given orally. Some medication are rendered ineffective in the gastrointestinal tract by action of the digestive juices. for example insulin. Some are not retained in the intestine for a sufficient period for absorption due to diarrhea and vomiting
- To obtain a local effect at the sight of the injection for example Local anaesthetics as xylocaine and novocaine. Diagnostic purpose as in Shick test, tuberculin and some other test. To test allergic conditions of the drugs.
- To restore blood volume by replacing the fluid, e.g. in shock conditions.
- To give nourishment when it cannot be taken by mouth.