Major Health Problems of Women– Maternal care involves healthy living during the entire nine months of pregnancy. In our villages and town, most of women die of minimum healthcare on the period of pregnancy. In India, the risks of infection and complication pre and post pregnancy are high.
Major Health Problems of Women – The major health issues are:
i) Malnutrition in women and adolescent girls
Malnutrition has intergenerational impact.Women who are anaemic and malnourished give births to low birth weight babies. Women’s work capacity goes down and anaemic women stand to the risk of increased haemorrhages after delivery and are vulnerable to infections and eclampsia / pre-eclampsia.
ii) Early marriages and teen age pregnancies
Early marriages lead to teen-age pregnancies which are risky pregnancies with a 50% increased risk of still births and neonatal death. Nearly 8% of births in India occurred in teen age group.
iii) High Fertility
Crude Birth Rate in India has declined .However, crude birth rate is high in rural areas and other states in india has higher birth rate. These states of India are home to 40% of the total population. Infant mortality and maternal mortality are also high in these states and couples are not sure of survival of their children, hence give birth to more children in the process.
iv) Current Practice of Family Planning Methods and unmet need for family planning.
Most of married womens not practice any method of contraception. Female sterilization is the most popular method contraception, practiced by 36% of women. Male sterilization is insignificantly low at 0.3%, IUD/PPIUD practice is low at 1.5%, oral pill use rate is 4.1% and 5.6% of couples use condoms. Hence spacing methods need to be promoted aggressively and male participation must increase by popularizing ‘No scalpel vasectomy’. Unmet need for any method of contraception is about 13%.
SEE ALSO : Examples of Communicable Diseases
v) High Incidence/Prevalence of RTI/STI
women have to bear the brunt most often – vaginal and cervical discharge syndrome and genital ulcers and lower abdominal pain syndrome in women are quite common. Sexually transmitted infections (STI) and Reproductive tract infections (RTI) have a major impact on sexual and reproductive health; such as infertility, still births, neonatal deaths. Persons with RTI/STI are at risk of acquiring and transmissionof HIV.
vi) Unsafe Abortions
maternal mortality is on account of unsafe abortions in India. Though termination of pregnancy is legal in India by MTP Act, illegal abortions are rampant and are unsafe most often and life threatening.
vii) Low Levels of Coverage of Full Antenatal Care besides the variable.Quality of Antenatal Care
antenatal mothers had antenatal check up in first trimester. Pregnant mothers receiving 4 antenatal care visits during gestational period were 51%, consuming IFA tablets for 100 days or more were 30% and only 21% of women had full antenatal care (4 Antenatal checkups, at least one tetanus toxoid injection and IFA tablets taken for 100 or more days).
Major Health Problems of Women – The major health issues are continue below
viii) Post-natal Care Inadequate Coverage
Nearly 62% of mothers received post-natal care with 2 days of delivery from a doctor/nurse/LHV/ANM and other health personnel. Only 36.4% received financial assistance under JSY.
ix) High out of Pocket Expenditure for Delivery
Women had to spend on average Rs. 3198/- for delivery in government health facility.
Now nearly 80% of deliveries are institutional in India, this offers a window of opportunity for promoting exclusive breast-feeding, post partum contraception, prevention of sepsis and at birth immunization Programmemes. mothers stay less than 24 hours at institution after delivery and hence have to be cared at home after delivery by home visits or outreach services. Institutional deliveries have increase substantially on account which provides free drugs, diagnostic services, diet and transportation.
xi) Adverse Female Sex Ratio
in India. Adverse female sex ratio is attributable to sex syndrome – son preference, female foeticide and infanticide, neglect of girl child and high mortality in girls at younger age groups, high maternal mortality, easy availability of sex determination and abortion services and misuse of ultrasound technology.
Nearly 10-15% of couples are infertile in India. There has been a rising demand for in vitro fertilization (IVF) by these couples. Hence assisted reproductive techniques for infertility are being used in the Programmeme at regulated infertility clinics.
xiii) Breast, cervical and oral cancers
Most common cancers are breast and cervical cancer in women apart from oral cancers in tobacco users. Community based screening and opportunistic screening Programmeme has been mounted for early detection and management of common cancers in women apart from prevention Programmeme as a part of comprehensive Primary Health Care at the level of sub-centres to be named as Health and Wellness centres.
xiv) Menopausal Problems and Problem of Elderly Women
A large number of women face menopausal and old age problems. National Programmeme for care of older persons support such elderly men and women as a matter of policy.