What is Phototherapy? Types and Benefits

What is Phototherapy? Types, Benefits -Phototherapy, also known as light therapy, is a medical treatment that utilizes specific wavelengths of light to treat various skin conditions and certain types of jaundice in newborns. It is a non-invasive procedure that has gained popularity due to its effectiveness in treating conditions such as psoriasis, eczema, vitiligo, and acne. In this article, we will discuss the What is Phototherapy? Phototherapy Types and Phototherapy Benefits

Understanding What is Phototherapy? Types, Benefits

Phototherapy involves exposing the affected areas of the skin to controlled artificial light sources, such as UVB (ultraviolet B) rays or lasers. These light sources penetrate the skin and target the affected cells, promoting healing and reducing inflammation.

How Phototherapy Works

The precise mechanisms of phototherapy are still being researched, but it is believed to work by several different mechanisms. UVB light, for example, slows down the rapid growth of skin cells in conditions like psoriasis. It also helps to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune response, which is often overactive in certain skin conditions.

Types of Phototherapy

There are several types of phototherapy available, each with its own specific uses and benefits:

UVB Phototherapy

UVB phototherapy is a common treatment that uses ultraviolet B light to treat skin conditions such as psoriasis, eczema, and vitiligo. It is typically administered in a controlled environment using specialized equipment.

PUVA Therapy

PUVA therapy combines the use of a photosensitizing medication called psoralen with UVA (ultraviolet A) light exposure. This treatment is effective for various skin conditions, including psoriasis and vitiligo.

Narrowband UVB Therapy

Narrowband UVB therapy is a more targeted version of UVB phototherapy that uses a narrower spectrum of light. This treatment has proven to be effective for psoriasis and other skin conditions, with fewer side effects than broader-spectrum UVB therapy.

Excimer Laser Therapy

Excimer laser therapy delivers high-intensity UVB light to specific areas of the skin, sparing the surrounding healthy skin. It is commonly used for localized treatment of psoriasis, vitiligo, and other inflammatory skin conditions.

Photodynamic Therapy

Photodynamic therapy involves the use of a photosensitizing agent and a specific wavelength of light to destroy abnormal cells, such as cancer cells. It is often used to treat skin cancer and precancerous lesions.

Conditions Treated with Phototherapy

Phototherapy can effectively treat a range of skin conditions, including:


Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune condition that causes red, scaly patches on the skin. Phototherapy is often recommended as a first-line treatment for psoriasis, especially for moderate to severe cases. It helps to reduce inflammation, slow down the overgrowth of skin cells, and alleviate the symptoms associated with psoriasis.


Eczema, also known as atopic dermatitis, is a chronic inflammatory skin condition characterized by itchy and inflamed skin. Phototherapy can be beneficial in managing eczema symptoms by reducing inflammation, soothing itching, and promoting skin healing.


Vitiligo is a condition that causes loss of skin color, resulting in patches of depigmented skin. Phototherapy, particularly narrowband UVB therapy, can help stimulate the production of melanocytes and repigment the affected areas, improving the appearance of vitiligo.


Phototherapy, specifically blue light therapy, has shown promising results in treating acne. Blue light targets the bacteria responsible for acne breakouts and helps to reduce inflammation. It can be used as a standalone treatment or in combination with other acne treatments.

Jaundice in Newborns

Phototherapy is commonly used to treat jaundice in newborns. The blue light helps to break down bilirubin, a substance responsible for the yellowing of the skin and eyes in newborns. By exposing the baby’s skin to the light, phototherapy can aid in the elimination of excess bilirubin.

Benefits of Phototherapy

Phototherapy offers several advantages as a treatment option for various skin conditions:

Effective Treatment

Phototherapy has been proven effective in managing and improving the symptoms of conditions like psoriasis, eczema, vitiligo, and acne. It can significantly reduce inflammation, alleviate itching, and promote skin healing.

Minimal Side Effects

Compared to many other treatment options, phototherapy generally has minimal side effects. The most common side effect is temporary skin redness, which usually subsides shortly after the treatment.


With different types of phototherapy available, it can be tailored to suit the specific needs of each individual. Dermatologists can customize the treatment based on the condition being treated, the severity, and the patient’s skin type.


Phototherapy is a non-invasive treatment option, meaning it does not involve surgical procedures or the use of medications that can have systemic side effects. It is a safe and well-tolerated treatment, especially when performed under the supervision of a dermatologist.

Convenient and Cost-Effective

Phototherapy can be conveniently administered in a dermatologist’s office or even at home with prescribed equipment. It typically requires multiple sessions over a period of time, but it is often more affordable than other long-term treatment options.

Preparing for Phototherapy

Before starting phototherapy, it is important to take certain steps to ensure safety and maximize the effectiveness of the treatment:

Consultation with a Dermatologist

Consulting with a dermatologist is crucial before undergoing phototherapy. They will evaluate your skin condition, medical history, and determine the most appropriate type of phototherapy for your specific needs.

Skin Evaluation

A thorough evaluation of the skin will be conducted by the dermatologist to assess the severity of the condition and identify any contraindications or potential risks.

Protective Measures

During phototherapy sessions, it is essential to protect the eyes and areas of the skin that do not require treatment. Dermatologists may provide protective goggles or shields to minimize the risk of eye damage and sunburn in unaffected areas.

Undergoing Phototherapy Treatment

Once you are prepared for phototherapy, the treatment process will involve several key aspects:

Duration and Frequency

The duration and frequency of phototherapy sessions will depend on the specific condition being treated and the individual response to treatment. Typically, sessions last a few minutes to several minutes, and treatment may be required 2-3 times per week initially, with adjustments made based on the progress and the dermatologist’s recommendation.


During the treatment, you will be positioned in front of the phototherapy equipment, which emits the specific wavelengths of light needed for your condition. The affected areas will be exposed to the light, while the rest of your body may be covered or protected.

Safety Precautions

To ensure safety during phototherapy, certain precautions must be followed. This includes wearing protective eyewear to shield your eyes from the light, avoiding exposure to sunlight immediately before or after the treatment, and adhering to the recommended treatment schedule provided by your dermatologist.

Potential Side Effects and Risks

While phototherapy is generally safe and well-tolerated, there are potential side effects and risks to be aware of:


Exposure to UVB or UVA light can cause sunburn-like symptoms, such as redness, tenderness, and peeling of the skin. However, under the supervision of a dermatologist, the light intensity and duration are carefully controlled to minimize the risk of sunburn.

Dryness and Itching

Some individuals may experience temporary dryness or itching of the skin after phototherapy sessions. Using moisturizers and following your dermatologist’s skincare recommendations can help alleviate these symptoms.

Increased Risk of Skin Cancer

Prolonged and excessive exposure to UV light, particularly in individuals with a history of skin cancer or those at high risk, may increase the chances of developing skin cancer. It is essential to follow your dermatologist’s recommendations, attend regular check-ups, and protect your skin from excessive sun exposure.

Eye Protection

UV light can harm the eyes, potentially leading to conditions such as cataracts or other eye disorders. Wearing the provided protective eyewear during phototherapy sessions is essential to safeguard your eyes.

Conclusion -What is Phototherapy? Types, Benefits

In Conclusion -What is Phototherapy? Types, Benefits -Phototherapy is a highly effective treatment option for various skin conditions, offering significant benefits such as reduced inflammation, improved symptoms, and minimal side effects. With different types of phototherapy available, it can be tailored to suit individual needs. By following safety precautions, consulting with a dermatologist, and adhering to recommended treatment plans, individuals can achieve positive outcomes with phototherapy.

FAQs -What is Phototherapy? Types, Benefits

Is phototherapy painful?

Phototherapy is generally painless. Some individuals may experience mild discomfort or warmth during the treatment, but it is usually well-tolerated.

How long does it take to see results with phototherapy?

The timeline for seeing results with phototherapy varies depending on the condition being treated and individual factors. Improvement may be noticeable within a few weeks or may require several months of consistent treatment.

Can I undergo phototherapy if I have sensitive skin?

Yes, phototherapy can be adjusted to accommodate different skin types, including sensitive skin. Dermatologists can tailor the treatment plan to minimize any potential skin reactions.

Are there any long-term risks associated with phototherapy?

While phototherapy is generally safe, prolonged and excessive exposure to UV light may increase the risk of skin cancer. Regular check-ups with a dermatologist and practicing sun protection measures can help mitigate these risks.

Can I undergo phototherapy while taking other medications?

It is important to inform your dermatologist about any medications you are taking, as certain medications can interact with phototherapy. Your dermatologist will assess potential interactions and adjust your treatment plan accordingly.

Please note that this article is for informational purposes only and should not substitute professional medical advice.

Name -Parika Parika holds a Master's in Nursing and is pursuing a Ph.D. in Nursing. In addition to her clinical experience, Parika has also served as a nursing instructor for the past 10 years, she enjoys sharing her knowledge and passion for the nursing profession.

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