Methods use to Control Communicable Disease

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Methods use to Control Communicable Disease –Communicable Disease Control
Communicable Disease Control refers to reduction or control of the incidence and prevalence of communicable disease to a level where it cannot be a major public health problem.
Methods use of Communicable Disease Control
three main methods of controlling communicable diseases:

Elimination of the Reservoir
a. Man as reservoir: When a man is reservoir, then eradication
of an infected host is not a viable option.Then the following
options are considered to Elimination of the Reservoir.

Detection and adequate treatment of cases: detection of the disease and arrests
communicability of the disease for example Treatment of active
pulmonary disease tuberculosis.


Isolation: Isolation is a separation of infected persons of Communicable Disease for a selected period of communicability of the disease. The infectious disease Isolation is indicated for with the following features:

  • High morbidity and mortality
  • High infectivity


Quarantine: Quarantine is a limitation of the person or animal movement who has been exposed or identified to the infectious disease for a duration of the maximum period incubation of the disease.


b. Animals as reservoir: this Action will be determined by
usefulness of the animals, how they are intimately associated
to man and the feasibility of protecting susceptible animals.
For example:
􀂃 Plague: Rat is regarded as a pest and the objective
would to be destroy the rat and exclude it from the human
habitation.
􀂃 Rabies: The Pet dogs can be protected by their vaccination but
stray dogs are to be destroyed.
􀂃 Infected animals if they are used for food are examined and
destroyed.


c. Reservoir in non-living things: Reservoir in non-living things is a Possible to limit man’s exposure to these affected area like Soil, water, forest, etc.

Interruption of transmission
This involves to the control of modes of transmission from
the reservoir to the potentially new host through following ways:

  • Improvement of personal hygiene and environmental sanitation
  • Control of the vectors
  • use the methods of Disinfections and sterilization

Protection of The susceptible host: Protection of The susceptible host can be achieved
through following ways:
􀂃 Provide Immunization: Active or Passive
􀂃 Chemo-prophylaxis like as – Malaria, meningococcal
meningitis, etc.
􀂃 Provide to be Better nutrition
􀂃 Use Personal protection equipments. (e.g. wearing of shoes, use of
mosquito bed net, insect repellents, etc.)

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